It wasn’t Joseph’s brothers who took his bones to Canaan, as they had long since died. It was the people of Israel, the descendants of Joseph and his brothers.
The chronology of this period is outlined in my book The Times: a Chronology of the Bible, chapter 3.
Joseph died in about 1585 BC. The Israelites left Egypt 139 years later in 1446 BC.
Joseph’s bones were finally buried (Jos 24:32) after they entered Canaan under the leadership of Joshua in about 1406 BC. So the total time from Joseph’s death to his burial in Canaan was about 179 years.